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Why did primitive people form governments? Early civilizations established governments voluntarily or by pressure of someone who became the leader. Grouping together offered participants benefits which they could not obtain by themselves. It was security. People wanted a way to prevent animals or other groups of people from entering their cave to kill or enslave them. There was strength in numbers! Three or four people might defend against any predator. Many families of a group or tribe might defend against another group that was attacking. Primitive people knew that they had to surrender freedoms to maintain their most important freedom, self-preservation.
Later, several groups gathered into larger groups. Rule by kings was established. The king's most important responsibility was safe passage between the several groups that lived with in distinct communities. This was known as the "King's Peace." However, every person, group or community had the basic need of water and food. The king had to assure that these needs and other necessary services were available to keep his throne, or his head. The king needed to obtain some equal and counter services that compensated for the services and protection which he offered. Protection came from a requirement that subordinates had to show up on demand to fight on behalf of the king. Serfs who could not fight provided compensatory goods and food. Everyone knew, from the beginning of time, something had to be offered to obtain benefits. They joined in for other benefits in compensation. In all cases this involved surrendering some freedoms.
As societies became more civilized, additional programs and services became obligations of governments. Those who were expected to offer arms found that the king would accept payment in place of service. Money was more reliable to the king than hoping someone would show up and on time. The king could buy mercenaries with the money. Standing armies became a necessity for protection. Local people proved more reliable than any other alternative to protect the byways and towns. This mandated a justice system for those accused. Throughout history, religions required that aid be given to the poor. Early communities offered help to the poor, then substituted this help by using their government as an alternative. Sanitation became a problem, so governments had to provide sewage as well as water. The government took on paving streets because streets were common to all properties. Hospitals and needed health care were first offered by religious organizations. However governments had to offer alternative facilities for people who did not want to be obligated to any specific religious order or sect.
Governments had many responsibilities to assist and serve people. Governments needed to raise money to pay for the services required and demanded by the people. Governments found ways to tax citizens. The real estate tax seemed to be the fairest and easiest tax to collect since land was the sole source of income before the industrial revolution. (Land became a liability after the industrial revolution, yet the real estate tax continues.) Many other ways to tax the public were developed, depending upon the king or country. The nobility was exempt from all taxes, so most tax systems eventually became warped and unfair.
Every government needs to collect taxes. We must pay taxes as we pay for a movie or any other thing we require or desire. I deliberately pointed to the movies, because most of us pay the price of admission, plus splurge even more for popcorn and soda. We drive on lighted paved roads to go to the movies. We see schools, libraries, town facilities, and parks. These facilities and roads have been there for years and were continually improved by people of the past. Don't we have a responsibility to make sure that future generations find equal or better facilities? We should understand that we continually lose more of the liberties we thought we enjoyed as our world gets more complicated. As the world gets more crowded, our space and freedoms get more restricted. Taxes are an important sources of revenue to maintain and improve what we have as long as taxes are fair to all. I said fair to all, referring to the collection and use of tax money as the majority requires and desires.
Therefore governments are to serve, not to rule. To perform the required services requires our paying the required taxes. As had been in the past, there was an understanding; each party has obligations to perform to maintain the balance.federal government lawyers